Manuale di Pizzicato per l'Utente 3.6Glossario di Pizzicato

Glossario dei termini musicali ed informatici

Troverete nel presente glossario le definizione dei termini principali usati nel manuale di istruzioni di Pizzicato. Questi termini riguardano tanto la musica che l'uso del computer. Alcuni termini hanno un significato informatico abbastanza preciso oltre al loro uso abituale. Sono incluse nel glossario solo le definizioni relative al computer.

Altri termini hanno parecchie definizioni in base al contesto nel quale sono usate. Assicuratevi di considerare la definizione corretta. I termini colorati e sottolineati nelle definizioni sono essi stessi inclusi nel glossario.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

A

Name of the sixth note of the natural scale formed by the piano white keys. The A notes are white keys located between the second and the third black key of groups of three black keys on the musical keyboard.

A4

Standard dimension of a paper sheet very used in Europe. Its dimensions are : 210 X 297 mm.

ALT

Denomination of a key located on a PC keyboard. It is generally located to the left of the space bar, on the first key line.

ASCII

Abbreviation of American Standard Codes for Information Interchange. It is a code which associates a number to letters and various characters and signs found on a computer keyboard. The computer uses this code to handle and store text.

AWE 32 and 64

Sound card models (SoundBlaster series).

Accelerando

Italian word meaning accelerating. It is used to indicate that it is necessary to gradually accelerate the notes played, i.e. to increase the tempo while playing. Its abbreviation is Accel.

Accent

Sign placed above or below a note to show that it must be played more loudly than the other notes. Here are examples:

Accidental

A sign placed in front of a note to modify its pitch. The sharp, the flat, the double-sharp, the double flat and the natural are accidentals. When placed in front of a note, one speaks about an accidental. They can also be located at the beginning of a staff. They then constitute a key signature.

Accidentals eraser

A tool to erase an accidental. Its shortcut is upper case letter 'X'.

Adagio

Italian term meaning slowly, gently. It is used in music to indicate a slow tempo, in the neighborhood of 40 to 50 quarter notes per minute.

After touch

After having pressed a musical keyboard key, you can press more or less by maintaining the pressed key. Some keyboards take this pressure into account and send it as a MIDI message to influence the notes played. This effect is called After touch, it occurs after the note is pressed.

Allegro

Italian term meaning sharp, lively. It shows that the music piece must be played with a lively tempo, in the neighborhood of 100 to 120 quarter notes per minute.

Amplitude

It is the force of a sound, its intensity, its loudness. The sound is an air vibration. The amplitude of a sound is the extent of its vibration. By comparing it with waves propagating on sea, the amplitude is the height of the waves.

Apple (key)

Name of a key located on the Macintosh keyboard. This key is on the left of the space bar. On the extended keyboards, it is found also on the right of the space bar. It is called the Apple key, because an apple is drawn on it. Its main function is to activate shortcuts for menu items.

Arpeggio

  1. Name of the company which markets Pizzicato (In French : Arpège).
  1. It is the succession of the notes of a chord. Here is a chord followed by an arpeggio with the same notes:

  1. Sign placed in front of a chord to indicate that the notes must be played as an arpeggio:

Arrange

  1. The action of making an arrangement.
  2. Option used in the musical libraries. During the score generation, when this option is active, Pizzicato replaces the notes of a melody with the closest notes belonging to a given chord.

Arrangement

  1. Manner of combining the various instruments and musical elements to come to a coherent sound result. The obtained result.
  2. Adaptation of an original work so that it can be played by instruments different from those envisaged originally (piano arrangement of a work written for an orchestra) or to give it another musical colour (jazz arrangement of a classical work).

Arrow tool

It is a tool of Pizzicato. It is located on the main palette and is activated by ESC. It is used to move most of the score items.

Augmented

Applies to an interval when larger than a major or perfect interval.

B

B

Name of the seventh note of the natural scale formed by the white piano keys. B notes are white keys located just to the right of groups formed by three black keys on the musical keyboard.

Balance

It is a parameter found on most Hi-Fi systems. It directs sound to the right or to the left. In Pizzicato, the instruments view lets you adjust the balance for each instrument.

Bank (sound)

The sounds generated by a synthesizer are often organized in several sets called sound banks. To select a sound, the sound bank must first be selected and then the instrument number in this sound bank.

 

Bar line

It is a vertical line drawn on the staff which delimits the measures. Here is an example:

Bass drum

Broad cylinder with two tended skins which one strikes. The obtained sonority is very low and is often used to mark strong beats of the measure. A percussion instrument.

Beaming

Oblique or horizontal lines connecting groups of notes whose rhythmic values are less or equal to an eighth note. Here are some examples:

Beat

A beat is a subdivision of a measure in equal parts. A 4/4 measure contains 4 beats and each beat corresponds to a quarter note. The denominator of the measure indicates the rhythmic value associated with a beat (4 means that each beat equals to a quarter note, 8 corresponds to the eighth note…).

Bitmap

It is a picture format used on a computer. The picture is divided into small squares and each square can be coloured with a different colour. The aspect of the picture is thus defined by the colours of these dots. Each dot is called a pixel.

Border (of a window)

It is a graphic area which surrounds a window. In the Windows windows, it is a small area (1 or 2 mm) which surrounds the window. By clicking and dragging this area, you can change the size of the window, according to the type of window.

Brace or Bracket

A sign that groups several staves on a score. Pizzicato offers two different models. The first one (braces) is used to group staves played by the same performer, such as for example the left hand and the right hand of the piano:

The second (brackets) is used to group instruments of the same family, such as for example all string instruments of an orchestra:

Bracket

See brace.

Brass

Family of instruments which comprises the trumpet, the horn, the trombone,...

Button

Rectangular graphic area found in dialog boxes. By clicking a button, the computer executes an action. Here are two examples:

Byte

In computer terminology, it corresponds to a number which can have a value from 0 to 255. It is the capacity of the memory necessary to keep a character of the computer keypad. A megabyte (MB) is a unit of memory which contains one million bytes.

C

C

Name of the first note in the natural scale formed by the white keys of a piano. C notes are white keys located to the left of the two black keys groups on the musical keyboard.

C/crossed C

By convention, a 4/4 measure can be written with a large C at the beginning of the measure. In the same way, a 2/2 measure can be written with a large crossed C (with a vertical line). Here are two examples:

Cancel

You will find a button entitled Cancel in most Pizzicato dialog boxes. By clicking on this button, you cancel modifications done in the dialog box. You can also activate it with the ESC key on the computer keyboard. The dialog box is automatically closed.

Caps Lock

A key of the computer keyboard forcing the use of capital letters. It is located just above the left SHIFT key. On some keyboards, a light indicator shows its activity.

Cell

Term used in the Pizzicato composition libraries. It designates each of the 4 basic elements used to create a musical work : the rhythm, the melody, the theme and the chord.

Cells combination

The composition libraries let you build simple cells combinations to form more complex elements. Also called a folder. For chords, one speaks about a chord progression.

Charleston

Battery instrument composed of two cymbals which are primarily activated by the foot.

Check box

It is a graphic item used to select an option. It is represented by a small square followed by some words describing the option:

Chord

  1. When several notes are heard simultaneously, one speaks about a chord. According to the relations existing between the various notes of the chord, a specific name is given to the chord to characterize it.
  2. In Pizzicato, a more restrictive definition is used for a chord placed in a measure. It is a set of superimposed notes with the same rhythmic value, that behaves like one rhythmic value associated with several note pitches.
  3. It is the name of the tool used to create chords on the staff.

Chord progression

  1. A sequence of chords forming the base on which most musical works are written.
  2. In Pizzicato, a chord progression is a musical library folder which contains chords.

Chorus

Special effect which distorts sound by giving the impression that it multiplies itself and slightly puts himself out of tune.

Chromatics

Which takes into account or uses all the half tones of the scale. The chromatic scale contains the 12 keys of the keyboard (black and white keys).

Classical (music)

Music composed by the well known Western composers, in opposition to variety and jazz.

Clef

It is a symbol placed at the beginning of a staff as a reference for the positions of notes in the staff. According to the clef type, the C note will be placed on or between different lines on the staff. The most common clefs are the treble clef (F) and the bass clef. Here are examples :

Click

  1. (Noun) A click is executed by pressing and releasing the mouse button. This operation is used to control and direct the computer and to tell it to execute actions.
  2. (Verb) It is the action consisting of pressing the mouse button and releasing it immediately. It is the main action used to control the computer using the mouse.

Click and drag

It is the action consisting of pressing the mouse button, dragging the mouse and then releasing the mouse button. This operation is used to move graphic items, to select a menu or to change the size of a window.

Close box

It is a small area located in the left or right part of the title bar of a window or in a dialog box. By clicking in it, the window or the dialog box is closed.

Compatible PC

See IBM.

Composition

It is the art to create and build a musical work.

Computer

Electronic device allowing to execute prepared data treatments and handling information very quickly. These "prepared data treatments" are programs introduced into the computer and executed by it so as to offer services to the user in a specific field (music, text processing, drawing, accountancy, management…).

Configure

Term generally used in computers to designate the operation consisting in selecting a series of options (often using a dialog box) so that the computer is prepared for a precise task. Example: to configure the MIDI is to select the MIDI options in such a way that the computer can communicate with your synthesizer or your sound card.

Contemporary

Contemporary music is the music created nowadays. This term is especially used to designate music works exploring unusual sound effects and using musical elements in a less conventional way.

Contextual help

A Pizzicato function to visualize help texts on the screen, related to the context in which the mouse cursor is located. By placing the cursor on a Pizzicato item and by using the F1 key (or help key on the Mac ), a text appears on the screen to explain this item to you.

Control

Name of a key located on the computer keyboard. It is often noted Ctrl. It is often used to modify the effect of a mouse click.

Copy

Operation consisting in making a copy of one or more measures to a temporary computer memory, in order to use it in the paste operation. This temporary memory is often called the clipboard.

Crescendo

Progressive increase of the loudness of sound, for one or more instruments. Cresc is the abbreviation. It is also written like this:

Cursor

  1. The mouse cursor is a small symbol drawn on the computer screen, which follows the movement of the mouse. It shows where the mouse button acts when a click is executed. It can take various graphic aspects. It is usually represented as an arrow.
  2. The moving box of a vertical or horizontal scroll bar.
  3. When you fill characters into a text box, a small vertical bar flickers to show the location where the next character will be added. This small bar is called the text cursor.
  4. When you introduce notes by combining the computer and the MIDI keyboards, a vertical bar flickers through the measure to show where the next note will be added. It is the MIDI cursor.

Cursor arrow

When using the mouse, the drawing which represents it on the screen is made of an arrow. The active area of this drawing is this cursor arrow. With it you can precisely click on a score note, in a button

Cut

It is the same operation as copy, but the original measures are also erased. The cut/paste operation is used to move one or more measures from one place to another in the score.

Cymbal

Instrument composed of a metal disc which is hit by a stick. The battery contains one or more cymbals.

D

D

Name of the second note of the natural scale formed by the piano white keys. D notes are white keys located between the two black keys of the groups of two black keys on the musical keyboard.

Dash

Horizontal line placed above or below a note. It means that the note must be slightly shortened and reinforced.

Data processing

It is the art to structure, organize and process data using a computer. Pizzicato is a program (also called a software) which can process musical data to help the user to compose and produce scores and arrangements.

Decrescendo

Progressive reduction of the playing loudness of one or several instruments. Decresc is the abbreviation. It is also written like this:

Default

The expression by default is often used in computers terminology. It designates the option or the choice taken by the computer when you do not specify anything explicitly. Example: the note colour is black by default. It means that if you explicitly do not specify the note colour, the notes will automatically be black.

Degree

Each note forming a major or minor scale. The first degree is the starting note of the scale. In C major, the degrees of the scale correspond to the white keys of the piano, the first degree is C, the second degree is D…

Delete (key)

A computer keyboard key used to erase text or graphic elements (notes, scores…). It is located in the upper right corner of the main group of keys. Here is a representation of it:

Denominator

At the beginning of a musical work, it is necessary to display the rhythmic content of the measures. This is done using two superimposed numbers. The lower number is called the denominator of the measure. It determines the base of the measure beat. 4 means a quarter note, 1 means a whole note, 8 means an eighth note…

Dialog box

It is a particular type of window with one or more graphic areas enabling the user to select options in order to specify the way in which a computer must work.

Diatonic

Based on the degrees of the major or minor scale. A diatonic transposition modifies the degrees without taking into account the exact intervals made of tones and half tones.

Diminished

Said of an interval smaller than the minor interval or the perfect interval.

Diminuendo

Decreasing. Dim. is the abbreviation.

Directory

See Folder.

Diskette

It is a disc used to store information in a computer. This information is not erased when the computer is switched off. Diskettes must be introduced into the computer to be written or read. They constitute a cheap way to exchange or store information. The storage capacity of a diskette is rather limited.

Document

In Pizzicato, a document is a set of scores and composition libraries. Those information are safeguarded on the hard disk under a name chosen by the user. All working options (printing size, justification, transcription…) are safeguarded with the document. Also called file.

Dot

  1. When a dot is drawn after a note or a rest, the note or rest duration is multiplied by one and a half. A dotted quarter note lasts for example one quarter note and a half. A dotted half note lasts three quarter notes.
  2. When a dot is drawn above or below a note, it means that the note should be played shorter than its normal value. On the musical keyboard, it amounts releasing the key earlier than expected.

Double flat

Sign placed in front of a note to show that its pitch is lowered by two half tones. On the musical keyboard, it amounts to taking the key located two keys to the left of the note (black and white keys mixed). Here are 2 examples:

Double whole note

It is a note with a duration equivalent to eight quarter notes. Here is an example:

Double whole rest

It is a rest equivalent to 8 quarter rests. It is written on the staff as a small black square:

Double-click

  1. (Noun) Operation done with two successive clicks on the mouse button. To form a double-click, the two clicks must be sufficiently close together (less than half a second in general). The double-click is often used to open a graphic item or to call a dialog box.
  2. (Verb) The action of executing a double-click using the mouse.

Double-sharp

Sign placed in front of a note to show that its pitch is increased by two half tones. On the musical keyboard, it amounts to taking the key located two keys to the right of the note (black and white keys mixed). Here are 2 examples:

Drag

See Click and drag.

Drag and drop

In the score sequencer view of Pizzicato, it is possible to select one or more measures or staves and to drag and drop them to another place of the score, in the same score or in another one, in the same document or in another one. It is a very natural shortcut for the copy operation followed by the paste operation.

Duplicate

To make an exact copy of an item (file, score, library…). The original item is not modified.

Duration

  1. It is the time period during which a sound is heard. With a tempo of 60 quarter notes per minute, a half note has a duration of 2 seconds.
  2. It is a parameter used to influence the notes. It is available through the instruments view. It expresses as a percentage the time during which a note will be played, compared to its natural rhythmic value. Its default value is 100 %. A quarter note played with a duration of 50 % will be played like an eighth note.

E

E

Name of the third note of the natural scale formed by the white keys of a piano keyboard. E notes are white keys located just to the right of groups of two black keys on the musical keyboard.

ESC

A computer keyboard key. It is very often located in the upper left corner of the keyboard. In Pizzicato, it is used to cancel a dialog box and as a shortcut to the arrow tool.

Edit

  1. Global term used in computer terminology to designate the creation, consultation and modification of information. A program or a dialog box used to execute these operations is called an editor. Pizzicato contains a score editor, because it can create, consult and modify musical scores.
  2. A menu title which contains the Copy/Paste/Cut/Erase functions.

Eighth note

It is a note with a duration equivalent to half a quarter note. Here are examples :

Eighth rest

It is a rest with a duration equivalent to half a quarter rest. Here is an example:

Enharmonic

Two notes bearing a different name and producing the same sound pitch are said enharmonic to each other. Example: C sharp and D flat represent the same key on the musical keyboard and thus produce the same sound.

Enter (key)

A computer keyboard key mainly used to validate dialog boxes and to introduce a new line into a text box. This key is located in the right part of the main group of keys and also on the right part of the numeric keypad. Also called Return key.

Exclusive

  1. Said of a dialog box which prevents any interaction of the user with anything else than this dialog box. The user must first close it before being able to continue working with the program. In Pizzicato, most dialog boxes are exclusive.
  2. Said of a MIDI message used to communicate specific information to a device such as for example the characteristics of a sound. The contents of an exclusive MIDI message can be understood only by a specific device and is thus exclusively intended for this device. It is a way to transmit useful information in MIDI, information that was not defined by the MIDI standard.

Exit

A menu item located in the File menu and used to close all open documents and quit.

Export

An operation consisting in converting some information from a document and saving it into another file format than normally used, with the purpose of using it with another program. Example: the export of a MIDI file that can be used by other musical programs. The reversed operation is called import.

Extension

An horizontal line placed next to the right of a lyric syllable. This line shows that the syllable must be maintained during the following note(s):

External margin

In the page layout mode of the score view, when the reference marks tool is active, a red rectangle delimits the area where the printer can print. It is the external margin. This margin is automatically adapted to the printer when you select the printing format.

F

F

Name of the fourth note of the natural scale formed by the white keys of a piano keyboard. F notes are white keys located next to the left of a group of three black keys on the musical keyboard.

FM (synthesis)

Sound creation process used in some synthesizers (Dx-7 by Yamaha, basic sound cards for PC,…). The principle is to modulate the frequency (pitch) of a signal by another signal, in order to create various sound tones.

Family (of instruments)

Pizzicato classifies the various sounds of a synthesizer in Families, such as pianos, organs, strings, woodwinds…. The purpose is to select a family first and then select an instrument in it. In this way, it is much easier to select a sound in a synthesizer, especially when the synthesizer contains several hundreds sounds.

Fifth

An interval formed by a sequence of 5 successive notes. The interval from C to G (C- D-E-F- G) forms a fifth.

File

It is the general name given to a set of information grouped under the same name. On a hard disk or diskette, the information is stored in various files. The files themselves are organized in folders (also called directories). In Pizzicato, a document is a particular file which contains one or more scores as well as all related options and composition libraries. This information is gathered under a unique name.

Flat

A sign located in front of a note to lower its pitch of one half tone. On a musical keyboard, it amounts to taking the key located just to the left of the note (whether black or white). Here are 2 examples:

Folder

  1. In the file system of a computer, a folder (also called a directory) is an element used to group several files together. By organizing your files, classifying them in folders, it is easier to find a specific one.
  2. In the Pizzicato musical libraries system, it is an element that may contain rhythms, melodies, chords or themes.

Font

A complete set of characters (letters, figures and symbols) established with a common graphic style. Macintosh and Windows provide several fonts so as to personalize the presentation of a document design.

Forte

Italian term meaning loudly. It is placed in the score in the shape of a rounded F, to show that one must play loudly. Here is an example:

Fourth

An interval formed by a sequence of 4 successive notes. The interval from C to F (C-D-E- F) forms a fourth.

G

G

Name of the fifth note of the natural scale formed by the piano white keys. G notes are white keys located between the first and the second black keys in a group of three black keys on the musical keyboard.

GM

Abbreviation of General MIDI. An international standard with which more and more manufacturers comply. The idea is to suggest a standard of instruments, percussions and main MIDI messages, so that a musical piece written for a specific GM compliant synthesizer can be played without modification on any other GM synthesizer. The sound colours will not be necessarily the same, but at least a piano will be heard with a piano sound and not a trumpet sound as it could be the case for synthesizers not compatible with the GM standard.

GS

Abbreviation of General System. It is a standard designed by Roland manufacturer. It is compatible with GM standard but goes further. For each GM sound, variations are possible. It also standardizes messages to influence sound creation and special effects in a synthesizer.

Glissando

The way in which an instrument plays by going from one note to another in a smooth and continuous pitch variation rather than by a single pitch step. A synthesizer can simulate this effect with a lever located beside some musical keyboards.

Grace note

One or more note(s) used to embellish or decorate another note. It is written in reduced size right in front of the main note. It must be played right before the main note, in a very fast way. Here are examples:

Graphic and MIDI symbol

With Pizzicato, you can place symbols on the score. These symbols have a graphic design visible on the printed score. A MIDI effect can be associated with any symbol. You may for example create a symbol causing a faster or more loudly play, changing the instrument… When the score is played on a synthesizer, Pizzicato takes those MIDI effects into account to perform your musical work. Those symbols are then called Graphic and MIDI because they influence both. This is only valid for Pizzicato Professional.

Gruppetto

A group of a few notes played before or after a main note to enrich the sound effect and to highlight the note. A form of grace notes.

H

HTML

Abbreviation of "Hyper Text Mark-up Language". It is a document description language which is used by Internet sites. The Pizzicato help system is written in HTML.

Half note

A note having a duration equivalent to 2 quarter notes. Here are two examples:

Half rest

A rest having a duration equivalent to 2 quarter rests. Here is an example:

Half tone

Sound interval which separates two consecutive keys of the musical keyboard, whether black or white.

Hard disk

A disk used to store information in a computer. This information is not erased when the computer is switched off. The music documents you create and safeguard are stored on your computer hard disk. The storage capacity of a hard disk is very high compared to a diskette.

Harmonization

The way chords are organized to accompany a melody.

Harmony

Set of musical writing rules which explain how to sequence and associate chords and voices.

Hexadecimal

Numbering system using digits 0 to 9 and letters A to F. It is often used in computer and MIDI.

Hi-fi

Abbreviation of "High Fidelity". This term is used to designate a high fidelity reproduction sound material (hi-fi system…).

High pitched

Sound is an air vibration. The faster the vibration, the more the sound sensation seems high pitched. On a piano keyboard, the notes are increasingly high pitched to the right of the keyboard. Contrary to low pitched.

I

IBM

Computer manufacturer. The micro-computers (PC, or Personal Computer) of IBM has formed a reference for the other manufacturers and one speaks now usually about a compatible (IBM) PC.

ID

Abbreviation of IDentifier. In computer terminology, an identifier is often a number identifying an element in a unique way among other similar elements. It is the identity card of an element. The tools of Pizzicato have each one a different ID. The instruments families, among other elements of Pizzicato, are distinguished by IDs.

Icon

Small drawing representing a graphic object on the screen. The tools of Pizzicato are represented by icons. Musical scores and composition library items are represented by icons in the main view of a document.

Import

An operation consisting in converting an external document into information that a program is used to handle. The external document is often coming from another program. Example: import a MIDI file coming from another musical program. The reversed operation is called export.

Instrument

  1. Device used to produce sounds so as to play music.
  2. Pizzicato view allowing to determine which instrument will play each staff of a musical score. This view also lets you specify various MIDI characteristics as sound volume, MIDI channel, velocity,...

Instruments configuration

The way in which the instruments characteristics are presented in the instruments view. You can choose between the various configurations of this view.

Internal margin

In the page setup dialog box, you can specify an internal margin. It delimits (inside the external margin) the page area where Pizzicato will place the measures and staves when it calculates the pages. When it exists, the internal margin is represented by a green rectangle in the page layout mode of the score view, when the reference marks tool is active.

Interval

The sound distance which separates two notes. The intervals are named according to the number of notes which separate them. If the two notes are consecutive, the interval is a second. If the notes are separated by one note, it is a third,… An interval can also be qualified compared to the number of tones and half tones which separate the two notes.

J

Justification

Operation which consists of justifying the contents of one or more measure(s).

Justify

The action of spacing notes and rests in a balanced way inside a measure. Pizzicato can automatically justify a measure as you add notes and rests in it.

K

Key signature

One or several accidentals located at the beginning of a staff. These accidentals affect all notes located on the staff. When these accidentals are placed at the end of a staff, it is known as a courtesy key signature, because it informs the performer of a change of key signature on the next line.

Keyboard

  1. The computer keyboard consists of keys used to send numbers, characters and various symbols to the computer, in order to control a software and to introduce information in it.
  2. A musical keyboard consists of black and white keys. It is used to play music. To work using a computer, the musical keyboard must be equipped with a MIDI connection.

Keyboard window

It is a window which represents the keys of a musical keyboard. You can use it to simulate a musical keyboard if you do not have one.

Korg

Synthesizers and MIDI devices manufacturer.

L

Layout tool

A tool of Pizzicato used to modify the way measures are laid out on a page.

Ledger line

When a note must be written higher or lower than the 5 lines of the staff, additional lines, called ledger lines, are drawn in order to easily locate the notes pitches. These lines form a local extension of the staff. Here are examples:

Legato

Italian term meaning "connecting". Placed in the score, it means that the notes which follow must be played in a connected way, i.e. without sound interruption between two consecutive notes. It produces the same effect as a tie.

Line

The musical staff is formed by 5 horizontal lines. The lines of the staff are numbered from 1 to 5 from bottom to top.

Linear (mode)

The linear mode (in opposition to the page mode) displays the score measures on a continuous staff system, without taking into account the way in which the measures will be laid out on a printed page. Pizzicato Light does not allow this display method.

List

A graphic element presenting a series of text lines to the user. The user may select a line to modify its characteristics or to execute a choice in a dialog box. Here is an example:

Local (parameter)

When a symbol is placed on the score, all its parameters have the original values of the symbol library (tempo value for instance). When you modify a parameter for a symbol placed in the score, this parameter becomes local, i.e. only this instance of the symbol is influenced by the modification. The original symbol as well as the others used in the score are not affected.

Loudspeaker

A device used to transform electrical current variations into sound vibrations. Most computers have an integrated loudspeaker. You find loudspeakers in any hi-fi system speaker and in headphones.

Low pitched

Sound is an air vibration. The slower the vibration, the more the sound sensation seems low pitched. On a piano keyboard, the notes are increasingly low pitched to the left of the keyboard. Contrary to high pitched.

Lyrics

When a song is written on a score, the syllables of the song are written just below the corresponding notes. Pizzicato has 3 specific tools for the introduction of lyrics on a score.

M

MIDI

Abbreviation of Musical Instrument Digital Interface. It is a system which allows the communication of musical information between computers, synthesizers and sequencers. The messages going through a midi cable determine the notes to play and several parameters like the sound volume, the instrument to use,...

MIDI In

The MIDI input through which a synthesizer or a computer can receive MIDI information coming from outside.

MIDI card

It is an electronic device (card) placed inside the computer and it contains a MIDI interface. With it, the computer can communicate with MIDI compatible musical instruments.

MIDI channel

Notes and MIDI information going through a MIDI cable can circulate on 16 different MIDI channels. They can be compared with a 16 lines highway. The notes may circulate on a channel without interfering with the other channels notes. It is as if there were 16 cables to transport the notes.

MIDI configuration

  1. Term which designates your MIDI material and the way in which it is connected.
  2. Name of a Pizzicato dialog box used to specify how Pizzicato may use the MIDI.

MIDI controller

It is a type of MIDI message used to control a synthesizer. There are 128 different midi controllers. The main controllers allow to modify volume, balance, pedal…

MIDI effect

General term used to designate the modifications affecting the notes and produced by symbols placed on a score. Volume level, balance, pitch bend… are MIDI effects. They are controlled by Pizzicato through the MIDI interface.

MIDI file

A file which contains MIDI and timing information necessary to play a musical piece on a synthesizer. The graphical aspect of the score is not contained in it. The advantage of this file format is that it is recognized in a universal way by all musical programs of the world. It is a standard of communication used to exchange music works between different programs, computers and sequencers.

MIDI file format

Three types of MIDI files exist. Format 0 has a single track in which all information is grouped for all instruments. It is the easiest format to read for MIDI reading programs, because it can be read progressively with the play of the notes. Format 1 contains one track by instrument. The tracks being recorded one after the other in the file, it is necessary to read them all before being able to start playing the file. Format 2 is very rare and is used to record independent temporal sequences in the same file.

MIDI filter

It is a series of options used to skip some midi messages from the recording. In Pizzicato, these options are available through the MIDI filter item in the Options menu. The midi input is then filtered according to these options and Pizzicato only takes into account the MIDI messages activated in this dialog box.

MIDI interface

A device used to establish the communication between your computer and one or more MIDI connections. Thanks to the MIDI interface, you can establish a communication between the computer and your musical compatible MIDI material.

MIDI out

The midi output through which a synthesizer or a computer can generate MIDI information to other MIDI devices.

MIDI port

A MIDI port is an access terminal used by Pizzicato to receive and transmit midi messages coming from a synthesizer or going to a synthesizer.

MIDI progression

Within the framework of the definition of MIDI symbols that may be placed on a score, it is possible to define the way in which a MIDI effect will evolve with time. It is called a midi progression. In this manner, a crescendo, an accelerando,... may be defined.

MIDI thru

It is a midi output through which a synthesizer or a computer re-transmits all midi information coming from its midi input.

MIDI track

Each staff of a Pizzicato musical score is associated with a MIDI track. It records and stores midi messages which must be played together with the staff notes.

Macintosh (Mac)

Computer brand, designed and manufactured by the Apple Computer Inc American company.

Main (view)

This view contains one or more icons representing the various scores and composition library elements located in a document.

Major

  1. Characteristic of a scale formed by the same sound intervals as those of the white keys of a musical keyboard, based on the C note. The C major scale is formed by the notes C, D, E, F, G, A , B and C.
  2. Term which designates the capacity of intervals like the seconds, the thirds, the sixths… A major second comprises 2 half tones, a major third contains four half tones.
  3. Said about a chord built on the first degree of a major scale (for example C-E-G is a C major chord).

Measure

A measure is a time division of a musical work. On the staff, measures are separated by a vertical line going through the 5 staff lines:

Each measure may contain notes and/or rests. Unless otherwise specified (repeat signs), the measures are played one after the other to build a musical work. They can be numbered. They allow an easier synchronization between performers playing together.

Mega Byte (MB)

Unit used to measure the storage capacity of a computer hard disk or memory. One Mega Byte contains one million Bytes (1 byte = a number between 0 and 255), which corresponds to one million characters of text.

Melody

  1. Succession of notes played which form a musical sentence.
  2. In the library composition system proposed by Pizzicato, a melody is a group of notes without rhythmic values. Through the score generation, melodies may be combined with rhythms and chords to form a score.

Menu

  1. A menu is a graphic element which lets the user execute an action of a program. It is represented as a menu bar made up of one or more words on a line. This menu bar is located either in the higher part of the screen or right under the title bar of a window.
  2. A popup menu is a graphic element located in a dialog box and which offers a choice to the user. It is represented by one or more words surrounded by a shaded rectangle. By clicking on it, a list appears and displays the various choices and the user can select the one he wants.

Menu bar

It is a graphic area located at the top of the screen (Macintosh) or right below the title bar of a window (Windows). It is represented by one or more words. Each word is the title of a menu. When you click on a word, the list of possible actions is displayed. When located in top of the screen, it is called the main menu bar.

Menu item

When you click in a menu, a list appears so you can make a choice. Each line of this list is called a menu item.

Metronome

A device used to play a sound in a very regular way, with an adjustable speed. Its purpose is to give a tempo to learn how to play in a regular way with a stable tempo. With the Pizzicato recorder window, you may activate and adjust the metronome speed. The sound is produced by the synthesizer.

Mezzo Forte

Italian term meaning half loudly. It is placed in the score to modify the sound volume. Here is an example:

Mezzo Piano

Italian term meaning half gently. It is placed in the score to modify the sound volume. Here is an example:

Minor

  1. Characteristic of a scale formed by the same sound intervals as those of the white keys of a musical keyboard, based on the A note. The A minor scale is formed by the notes A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and A.
  2. Term which designates the capacity of intervals like the seconds, the thirds, the sixths… A minor second comprises 1 half tone, a minor third contains three half tones.
  3. Said about a chord built on the first degree of a minor scale (for example A-C-E is an A minor chord).

Mixing

Operation which consists in adjusting the volumes of the various group or orchestral instruments, so that the whole is well balanced and that the instruments can be heard as clearly as possible.

Modem

  1. A device used to connect the computer to a phone line in order to establish a communication with another computer located at the other end of the phone line.
  2. Old Macintoshes had a communication plug used to connect a Modem. This plug may be used to connect a midi interface to the Macintosh.

Moderato

Italian term meaning moderate. This term is placed in the score to indicate to the performer that he must play in a moderate speed (60 to 80 quarter notes per minute).

Modulation

  1. Effect created by introducing an additional vibration in the sound. This vibration may influence the sound pitch (vibrato) or the amplitude (tremolo).
  2. It is the action of going from one tonality to another in the middle of a musical work.

Mordent

Musical ornament consisting in playing a note, quickly followed by the note just below it and again the original note. A mordent played on the C note has 3 notes quickly played: C-B-C. A reversed mordent uses the note just above it (C-D-C).

Mouse

A device which can be moved on a plane surface and whose movements direct a graphic cursor drawn on the computer screen. This cursor is used as a tool to handle graphic objects on the screen. One or more buttons are available on the mouse to execute actions related to the location of the screen cursor.

Mouse button

On the upper part of a mouse, you will find 1, 2 or 3 buttons according to the mouse model. By pressing a mouse button, you can control the computer. It behaves as a switch.

Mpu-401

MIDI interface built by ROLAND company for IBM compatible computers. It acts as a reference for the MIDI interfaces compatibility on PC.

Multiple choice

Group of graphic items allowing the user to make a choice among several options. Here is an example:

This example has 6 choices and the fifth option is activated. To make a choice, the user must click on the option he wants.

Multitimbral

Characteristic of a synthesizer which can simultaneously produce several different instrument sounds. If you want Pizzicato to play an orchestral score, you need a multilimbral synthesizer.

Music

The art of organizing sound to make it communicate a message, an emotion, an atmosphere or anything else.

MusicXML

MusicXML is a file format designed to represent a music score, as well for its graphic aspects as for the way the score is interpreted musically. It helps to exchange music scores between different music software (Finale, Sibelius,...). Pizzicato Professional 3.3 can read and write MusicXML files. Pizzicato 3.3 Light and Beginner can write MusicXML files. These files have an ".xml" extension. They form an application of the XML language to exchange information. Pizzicato uses the 2.0 format of the MusicXML standard.

Musical library

Musical building set allowing to create a music piece starting from basic blocks. The basic building blocks may be combined into thousands and thousands possibilities. The four types of building block are the rhythm, the melody, the theme and the chord. This system is offered by Pizzicato in order to be used as a musical composition assistance tool.

Musical notation

A set of graphic symbols (staves, measures, notes…) allowing to express on paper the contents of a musical piece and the way it must be played by the performer.

N

Natural

Sign located in front of a note to give it its natural value back. It cancels the effect of an accidental placed in the key signature or in the beginning of the measure. Here are 3 examples:

Note

A sound which has a precise pitch. Each white and black key of a musical keyboard corresponds to a note written on the staff. The sounds are written on the staff by a rounded symbol. High pitched sounds are written higher on the staff.

Note ON / Note OFF

MIDI messages sent respectively to start playing a note (when you press a musical key) and to stop playing a note (when you release a musical key).

Note head

Rounded form composing the graphic symbol of a note. By clicking on the note head, you can move it.

Note pitch

The pitch of a note corresponds to the number of sound vibrations per second. A note is increasingly high pitched when placed higher on the staff. On a musical keyboard, the notes are increasingly high pitched to the right of the keyboard.

Nuances

A set of symbols added on the score to express the sound volume to be played by the instruments:

Numerator (of the time signature)

The upper number of the time signature indication. It determines the number of beats in a measure. A 4/4 measure contains 4 beats and each beat has a duration of a quarter note (see also denominator).

Numeric keypad

A group of keys located on the right part of a computer keyboard. It contains numbers and other symbols.

O

OK

Label of a button found in most Pizzicato dialog boxes. When you click this button, you confirm the modifications done in the dialog box. When this button has a thick border, it can be activated by the return (or enter) key of the computer.

OMS

Abbreviation of Open Music System. It is a MIDI management system developed by the Opcode company. Pizzicato uses OMS on the Macintosh computer.

Octave

A sound interval which separates two consecutive notes bearing the same name. The octave interval consists of 12 half tones. This interval corresponds at a sound speed vibration in a ratio of two. The interval between two consecutive C notes forms an octave.

Open

The operation that consists in loading a document in the computer working memory in order to be able to visualize it, use it, modify it or print its contents. To listen to a musical score contained in a document, you first need to open the document.

Option

  1. Term generally used in computer terminology to designate a group of working characteristics of a program (graphic, MIDI options,…).
  2. Title of a Pizzicato menu giving access to the main options of the program.
  3. Special key of the Macintosh computer keyboard. It is located just to the left of the Apple key. It is often used in combination with a mouse click or double-click.

Orchestra

A rather significant group of performers coordinated by a conductor to execute musical works written for such a group.

Ornament

General term use to designate various ways of playing a note by decorating it with one or more other notes. For example, you can play a C note by playing quickly a B note first or by playing quickly C-B-C-D-C,...

P

Page (mode)

The page mode (in opposition to the linear mode) displays the measures and staves as they will be printed on paper.

Page layout

Operation which consists in laying out measures and staves on a page in order to prepare the score printing.

Palette

A particular window of Pizzicato which contains tools. The various palettes are open from the Tools menu.

Panoramic

A MIDI message used to distribute the instruments of a score in a sound space (left-center-right). It is used to simulate as well as possible the layout of an orchestra on a scene (violins on the left,...).

Parameter

  1. Term used in computer terminology to designate an adjustment which can affect the behavior of a program or a part of a document.
  2. In Pizzicato, symbol parameters are adjustments used to influence the behavior and the execution of these symbols.

Paste

After a copy operation, the temporary memory of the computer contains measures. The paste operation lets you place these measures at another place in the score. The copy/paste combination lets you save time by copying measures that are identical.

Pause

One of the recorder window keys used to stop playing instantaneously. By pressing it again, Pizzicato resumes playing exactly where it stopped.

Pentatonic (mode)

Music writing style where only 5 different notes are used to build a musical piece.

Percussion

Instrument family where the sound is generated by striking (drums, xylophone, kettledrum,…).

Percussion configuration

Also called percussion map. It is the way in which percussion instruments are written on the staff, such as for example the bass drum on the first line,…

Percussion model

Pizzicato allows the creation of special staves for the notation of percussion instruments, where each line of a staff may be assigned to a specific instrument. Moreover, you will find in the prepared templates, scores with 5 staves covering most percussion instruments. We recommend the use of those models for your scores.

Perfect

Qualification of a fourth or fifth interval which respectively corresponds to 5 and 7 half tones. The C to F interval is a perfect fourth and the C to G interval is a perfect fifth.

Performer

The person playing a musical work.

Piano

Italian term meaning gently. It is placed in the score as a rounded P, to ask the performer to play gently. Here is an example:

Piano roll

It is a graphic displaying the notes found in a measure. Each note is represented by a small line of which the length represents the note duration. A mini piano keyboard is drawn in order to locate the note pitches.

Pitch Bend

A MIDI message used to influence the pitch of a sound in a continuous way. Most MIDI keyboards have a lever used to produce this effect.

Pixel

"Picture Element". It is the smallest image area which can be displayed by a computer software. The physical size of a pixel depends on the displaying technique. A pixel of the screen is much larger than a pixel printed with a laser printer for example.

Pizzicato

  1. Italian term meaning "pinching". It is used for string instruments to indicate that the strings must be pinched instead of playing with the violin bow.
  2. Trade mark of the Pizzicato musical software.

Point (with the mouse)

The operation which consists in placing the mouse cursor arrow on a precise location of the screen. Before clicking, you first need to point to a location.

Polygon

Geometrical form made up by a set of lines forming a closed graphic area.

Polyphonic

Ability of a synthesizer to simultaneously play several notes. For example, a polyphony of 24 voices means that a maximum of 24 notes can be simultaneously played by the synthesizer.

Popup menu

See Menu (2)

Print

The operation that consists in sending the contents of a document to the printer in order to obtain a paper copy of the document contents. This operation is usually executed using a menu item.

Printer

A device connected to a computer, used to reproduce the result of a work on paper. In the case of Pizzicato, the printer lets you print your musical score on paper.

Program

See Software.

Program change

A MIDI message used to determine the instrument used by a synthesizer to play the notes.

Q

Quantization

An operation that consists in equalizing the notes. The start time and the duration of each note are analyzed and brought back on the nearest beat or beat fraction. The result is a mathematically more exact performance. This operation must be used with moderation, because it removes also the naturalness of a piece of music.

Quarter note

Note duration often used as a reference to establish the speed of a musical work. One will speak for example about a tempo of 100 quarter notes per minute, which means that the equivalent of 100 quarter notes are played in one minute. The other rhythmic values are calculated in quarter notes multiples or divisions (a half note is equal to two quarter notes, an eighth note equals half of a quarter note,…).

Quarter rest

A rest with a duration equivalent to a quarter rest. Here is an example:

R

RAM

See Read-write memory

Random

Determined by chance or hazard. Some musical library options may combine items in a random manner. If you place 6 notes in a melody folder with the random option on, these 6 notes will be used in a random order and will thus create the most various melodies. It is as if Pizzicato played dice to know which note will be the next to play.

Range

See Register.

Read-write memory (RAM)

An electronic component of the computer allowing to store data. The computer uses memory like a work bench to execute a program and to handle data. When you open a score with Pizzicato, the notes which make it up are loaded in the read-write memory. This type of memory disappears when the computer is switched off.

Real time (recording)

An operation which consists in playing notes with the musical keyboard while Pizzicato memorizes the actions you make on the keyboard. Each key action is memorized with its precise timing. It is called real time because you can play the music in the real timing, in opposition to the step by step method where notes are introduced one after the other without taking timing into account.

Reference marks tool

A tool used to visualize the limits of a symbol or a block of text on the score. By activating this tool, the score appears with a red rectangle around symbols and text blocks, and with visible margins. To disable it, click this tool again.

Register

The extent of notes an instrument can play. The double bass plays in a very low register.

Repeat signs

A set of symbols used to play one or more times the same musical passage without having to write it more than once. A repeat sign specifies to the performer that he must now play another measure than the one following the currently played measure. For example when he plays measure 10, a repeat sign may require him to go back and play measure 5 again (instead of going to measure 11).

Rest

A general term designating several symbols used to represent various silence durations in a score.

Return key

See Enter key

Reverberation

Effect created by several reflections of the sound on walls. The effect is more audible as the room is larger. Some synthesizers have an electronic system to simulate reverberation, thus making the sound more natural. This sound effect is controlled by a midi message.

Rhythm

  1. The way in which notes occur as regard to time. The base of the rhythm is the beat which appears in a regular way. The other rhythmic values are deduced by multiples or subdivisions of the regular beat. Each note is graphically written by a symbol representing its duration, like the quarter note, the half note, the eighth note,…
  2. In Pizzicato, a rhythm is also a musical library element which contains one or more successive rhythmic values. This element can then be combined with melodies, themes and chords to produce the score.

Rhythmic value

The duration within which a note must be played. It is specified on the score by various graphic aspects of the note. The rhythmic values used by Pizzicato are the double whole note, the whole note, the half note, the quarter note, the eighth note, the 16th note, the 32nd note, the 64th note and the 128th note.

Rhythmic voice

A rhythmic voice is a succession of notes and/or rests which fully fills the rhythmic duration of a measure. In a 4/4 measure, a rhythmic voice always has the equivalent of 4 quarter notes. Several rhythmic voices can be superimposed in the same measure.

Ritenuto

Italian term meaning careful, reserved. Placed in a score, it specifies to the performer to slow down, in a careful way.

Roland

Electronic musical instrument manufacturer.

Roll

Very fast repetition of the same note with a musical instrument. Very frequent for percussion instruments.

S

SHIFT

Name of a computer key used to obtain the upper case letters and the upper symbols of keys having two symbols. To use it, maintain the SHIFT key while pressing on a symbol or letter key. Here its aspect:

STOP

The recorder window button used to stop playing or recording.

Save

The operation which consists in writing on hard disk or diskette the contents of a document located in the computer read-write memory. The purpose of this operation is to be able to open this document later again, to consult it, use it, modify it or print it.

Scale

A general term used to designate a set of notes forming a context which can be used to compose music. The C major scale comprises for example notes C, D, E, F, G, A and B. This scale corresponds to the white keys of a musical keyboard.

Score

  1. One or more pages of written music.
  2. In Pizzicato, the term is also used to designate a section of a document (or file) defined by a number of staves and measures. A document may contain several scores, represented by icons with a treble clef in the main view.

Screen

It is a fluorescent surface on which the computer can draw and write. It is with the screen that the computer visually communicates to you regarding the status of your work, the choices to execute,…

Scroll bar

A graphic object used to move around in a window or a list, so that you can see the various parts of the window or list. A scroll bar may be vertical or horizontal. Here are examples:

Scroll view

It is a Pizzicato view used to display the score progressively as it is played by the computer. It is used to display several measures in advance without creating a visual interruption of the score.

Second

Interval which separates two consecutive notes in a scale. C and D form a second.

Select (verb)

  1. The action of adding an item to the selection.
  2. The action of making a tool active by clicking on it or by using its shortcut.

Selected

  1. Qualifies an item (text area, measures, staves) which belongs to the current selection of items.
  2. Qualifies the tool which is activated on a tool palette. After clicking in the repeat tool, the repeat tool is selected.

Selection

  1. Term used in computer terminology to designate the items that will be affected by an operation. These items are very often displayed in contrast (white on black). In Pizzicato, you can select a set of measures and staves to execute a global operation on these items. You can remove the selection, copy it and paste it elsewhere.
  2. Designates the tool used to select measures and staves.

Sequencer

  1. Electronic instrument allowing to record midi information coming from a musical keyboard. This recording can then be reproduced and other instruments can be added to it, its tempo may be modified,… It is a midi recorder.
  2. Pizzicato has a sequencer view which presents measures in the form of blocks containing a graphic display of their contents.

Seventh

An interval formed by a succession of 7 consecutive notes in a scale. The interval from C to B (C-D-E-F-G-A-B) forms a seventh.

Sforzando

Italian term meaning reinforcing. Placed on the score, it specifies that a note should be reinforced:

Sharp

Sign placed in front of a note to increase its sound pitch of one half tone. On a musical keyboard, it amounts to taking the key located just to the right of the note (black and white keys mixed). Here are 2 examples:

Shortcut

  1. A tool shortcut lets you select and/or use a tool without needing to open the palette which contains it.
  2. The shortcut of a menu is a letter, a figure or a symbol used to select a menu item using the keyboard, without using the mouse. In order to use it, press this shortcut key while maintaining the Apple key on Mac or the Ctrl key on Windows. When available, the shortcut is displayed to the right of the menu item.

Sixteenth note

It is a note with a duration equivalent to the quarter of a quarter note. Here are several examples:

Sixteenth rest

It is a rest with a duration equivalent to the quarter of a quarter rest. Here is an example:

Sixth

An interval formed by a succession of 6 consecutive notes in a scale. The interval from C to A (C-D-E-F-G-A) form a sixth.

Size control box

It is a box located in the bottom right corner of some windows, under Macintosh, in particular in the Pizzicato main view and score view. By clicking and dragging this area, you modify the size of the window.

Slider

Graphic area found in some dialog boxes. It has a mobile cursor that can be moved to specify a value (volume, reverberation, percentage,…). Here is an example:

Slur

A curved line including two or several notes. It means that these notes must be played in a continuous way, i.e. without sound interruption between the notes. Here is an example:

Snare drum

One of the battery instruments. It is a drum formed with two skins. Under the lower part, it has metal springs which resound.

Software

A set of instructions used by the computer to provide a service to the user in a particular field. Pizzicato is a musical software. Synonym of program.

Sound

The sound is an air vibration perceived by the ear. When a drum is struck, it starts to vibrate under the shock and involves with it the surrounding air which communicates this vibration to your ears and causes the perception known as sound.

Sound Blaster

A very widespread sound card for IBM compatible PC. According to the model, the card has an FM or wave table synthesizer and a midi interface whose cable is often optional.

Sound card

A sound card is an electronic device placed inside a computer. It contains a sound synthesizer enabling the computer to generate music. Many sound cards also contain an integrated MIDI interface, which requires a special cable for midi connection.

Sound module

A synthesizer which does not have a musical keyboard. It is equipped with a midi input to receive orders from an external midi keyboard, a sequencer or a computer.

Sound vibration

Sound is caused by an object which vibrates and involves with it the surrounding air. This sound vibration arrives then to your ears to create the perception of sound.

Space bar

It is the largest key of the computer keyboard. It is located at the bottom line of keys and generates a blank character, a space. It is also the shortcut to start playing a score.

Space between lines

It is the space between two consecutive lines of a staff. The four staff spaces between lines are numbered from 1 to 4 from bottom.

Special MIDI message

In the Pizzicato instruments view, it is possible to assign special midi messages. They consist of codified midi instructions which are sent to the synthesizer before starting to play notes. They may for example modify sound and other various parameters of the synthesizer.

Split point

When you record a musical piece by playing it directly on the keyboard, it is possible to specify a limiting note below which the notes will be transcribed in the staff just below the recording staff. This limit is called the lower split point. The same principle is valid to define an upper split point (the notes are then written in the staff just above the recording staff).

Staccato

Italian term meaning detached. When placed in the score, it means that notes must be played detached one from the other, i.e. by shortening their normal duration.

Staff

A set of 5 horizontal lines used as a support to write music notes and symbols:

Standard

Information format or technical specification on which computer, synthesizer,… manufacturers agree and which is used to create compatible systems. The MIDI system format is a standard which allows the musical exchange of information between different machines and software.

Start

  1. A parameter used to influence the notes played. It is available through the instruments view and is used to delay or advance the note starting times.
  2. The recorder window button used to start playing a score.

Staves characteristics

A Pizzicato dialog box used to specify braces, measure numbers,… It can be reached with a double-click to the left of a staff, with the measure tool.

Staves groups

The staves of the instruments can be connected to form staves groups. Usually, the staves are grouped by families of instruments on an orchestra score.

Stem

A vertical line fixed on the head of a note. The double whole note and the whole note do not have a stem. All other rhythmic values have one. The stem can be oriented down (it is placed left to the note head) or up (it is placed right to the note head):

Strings

Designates the family of stringed instruments played with a bow like the violin, the cello…

Sustain pedal

It is the equivalent of the piano right pedal. By holding this pedal down, the resonance of a note is hold after the note is released (the exact duration depends on the type of sound selected in the synthesizer). This effect is sent in MIDI with a specific message.

Synthesizer

An electronic device used to create conventional or imaginary instrument sounds.

System (of staves)

A system consist of several staves (with one or more measures) which are superimposed and connected on the left by a vertical line:

T

Tablature

A special staff formed by 6 lines representing the 6 strings of a guitar. It is used to write a guitar score by specifying which string and fret to use to play a note.

Tabulator

A key located on the left part of the computer keyboard, above the CAPS Lock key. Here is its aspect:

Templates

It is a set of prepared scores which can be used to start working. Most of the orchestral instruments, various orchestral scores, variety groups, among others, are provided with Pizzicato.

Tempo

The speed with which measure beats are played. For example, a tempo of 100 quarter notes per minute means that the equivalent of 100 quarter notes are played in one minute.

Tessitura

See Register.

Text

It is possible to add text on the score, to specify comments concerning performance, to add a title, a page number,… These elements are called text areas. They are added and handled using the text tool.

Text box

A graphic area found in dialog boxes, used to fill in text. It is surrounded by a black edge and a text cursor blinks where the next text character will be added.

Theme

  1. A succession of notes and rhythms forming a musical sentence, used as the basis to construct a musical work.
  2. In the Pizzicato musical libraries, a theme is represented by one or more notes each associated with a rhythmic value.

Third

An interval formed by a succession of 3 consecutive notes in a scale. The interval from C to E (C-D-E) forms a third.

Tie

When two notes of the same pitch are connected with a curve, it is called a tie. It means that the second note is a prolongation of the first note. It is a way of building a rhythmic value, used for example to hold a note through a measure bar:

Timbre

It is the characteristic of a sound that lets you distinguish the kind of instrument that is playing. A trumpet and a piano can play the same note (thus the same sound pitch) but nevertheless it is very easy to differentiate them. This is because the physical form of the air vibration these instruments produce are different.

Time signature

A time signature is a sign placed at the beginning and sometimes in the middle of a musical piece to show the exact number of beats contained in a measure. Here are two examples:

When this sign is placed at the end of a staff, it is known as a courtesy time signature, because it informs the performer that there is a time signature change occurring on the next measure.

Title bar

The upper part of a window. The title of the window is displayed in it. When clicking in this zone, you can move the window around.

To move

Often used to specify a click and drag operation with the mouse. You can move a measure a bit lower by clicking and dragging this measure with the mouse.

Tonal

A term used to qualify a chord, a musical passage, an interval,… when it is constructed on a tonality.

Tonality

A context of notes used to write a musical passage. The C major tonality contains notes C, D, E, F, G, A and B.

Tone

Sound interval which separates three consecutive musical keyboard keys, whether black or white. Between C and D, there is one tone.

Tool

For each aspect of musical notation, Pizzicato offers a tool used to handle that aspect. Before using a tool, it should be selected on the palette or by using its shortcut. The Pizzicato tools are located in the various palettes that can be opened in the Tools menu.

Transcription

The operation that consists in transforming a musical keyboard performance into standard musical notation.

Transpose

  1. The operation which consists in shifting all notes up or down, with the same shift interval for each note.
  2. Working option of melodies and themes in the Pizzicato composition libraries. When transposition is authorized, the melody or the theme will be transposed according to the lowest note of the current chord.

Tremolo

A sound effect created by a variation of the sound volume.

Trill

Fast alternation between 2 notes. It is written for example as:

Triplet

A group of three notes played in a duration normally assigned for two:

Tuplet

General term used to designate an irregular group of notes (which cannot be written by combinations of standard rhythmic values like the quarter notes, half notes, eighth notes, ...).

U

Unison

Sound interval between two notes having the same pitch. When two instruments play exactly the same melody, they play in unison.

User interface

Elements of interaction between the user and the computer. The keyboard, the mouse and the screen form the basis of the user interface.

V

Vectorial (drawing)

Type of drawing formed with simple objects (rectangles, lines, ellipses, text areas…). Each object can be modified or moved. A vectorial drawing memorizes the position and the properties of each object, as opposed to the bitmap drawing, where only the color of each dot forming the picture is memorized. A bitmap does not let you move or modify an object later, because the logical link between the object and all dots representing it is lost.

Velocity

It is the force or speed with which a musical key is hit. This value is sent in midi and the synthesizer takes it into account to play the note. With Pizzicato, you can modify the note velocities with symbols you place on the score.

Velocity mode

The Pizzicato instrument view lets you determine the velocity mode associated with a track. Four values are possible. RV (recorded velocity) takes into account the velocity recorded in real time. SV (symbols velocity) takes into account the velocity established by midi symbols. CV (combined velocity) takes into account the recorded velocity first and when it does not exist, the symbols velocity is taken into account. AV (average velocity) computes an average between the two.

Vibrato

A vibration introduced in a sound by slightly modifying the pitch of the sound in a cyclic way.

View

Pizzicato offers several ways to visualize the contents of a document. Each visualization is presented by a window called a view. Thus, the score view lets you to observe the contents of the document in musical notation. The instruments view lets you influence the instruments characteristics,…

Vivace

Italian term meaning sharp. Added in a score, it specifies to the performer to take a rather fast tempo (110/130 quarter notes per minute for example).

Volume

It is the sound loudness played by an instrument. The volume of each instrument can be regulated by the instruments view. In MIDI, the volume is specified with a specific message.

W

Whole note

A note with a duration equivalent to four quarter notes. Here is an example:

Whole rest

It is a rest with a duration equivalent to four quarter rests. Here is an example:

Window

A rectangular area which behaves on the screen like a paper sheet on a desk. Each window is an area where the computer displays information and allows you to act to modify this information. A dialog box is a particular type of window. The Pizzicato views (score, sequencer…) are windows.

Windows

A system allowing to exploit resources of a compatible PC with the mouse and a graphic environment. This program is designed by the Microsoft company. On PC, Pizzicato requires Windows to work.

X

Y

Yamaha

Electronic and traditional musical instruments manufacturer.

Z

Zoom box

It is a small area located in the right part of a window title bar. By clicking in it, the window increases its size to occupy the full screen. By clicking it again, it goes back to its previous size.


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